Arch The room at the rear of a Greek temple, behind the temple. They are small churches in regions around big urban centers. The reign of Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which commenced upon the coronation of Queen Victoria on June 20, 1837 and concluded upon her death on January 22, 1901 (Victoria was also crowned the Empress of India on May 1, 1876). The Corinthian order was utilized in ancient Greece almost exclusively for temple interiors, but became very prominent in ancient Rome, due to the ancient Romans’ taste for excessive ornamentation, particularly in architecture. Ever the imitators, but rarely the inventors, the ancient Romans grafted the volute scrolls of the Ionic order onto the capitals of the Corinthian order to result in the Composite Order. Do you know your architectural terms? A four-sided hipped roof featuring two slopes on each side, the lower slopes being very steep, almost vertical, and the upper slopes sometimes being so horizontal that they are not visible from the ground. A concave molding used as the intermediate part of a base. A passageway that cuts through the center of a building, from front to back, and off of which rooms open to the sides. Long slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface in a horizontal fashion, overlapping one another from top to bottom. This is an architectural, product, interior and graphic design, which commonly defines mid 20 th century developments in modern architecture, design and urban development from around 1933 to 1965. A characteristic (particularly of classical architecture) by which the two sides of a facade or architectural floor plan of a building present mirror images of one another. In the late 19th- and early 20th-centuries, a kitchen inspired by the kitchens of Colonial America. An arch that is pointed at its apex, rather than rounded; common in Gothic and Gothic Revival architecture. The story of Hansel and Gretel is a fairy tale in which two children lost in a forest come upon a gingerbread house trimmed with candy, but which is presided over by a child-eating witch. Difficulty: Average. Based on the connection between these two parts the type is subdivided into the following categories: complex four-columned, semi-complex four-columned, simple four-columned and simple two-columned. Eclecticism in architecture was very popular in both Victorian England and in the United States during the second half of the 19th century. Glossary of Architectural Terms Page 1 Abacus The abacus is the top part of a column capital. A plan, strategy, or model is always an arrangement, parcelling, and structuring of spatial relationships. Beam- a long, sturdy piece of w… hypar: short for hyperbolic paraboloid, a type of shell. It may run along the upper portion of a wall just beneath a cornice or it may be that part of a classical entablature that lies between the architrave and cornice. Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center. The horizontal intersection of two roof slopes at the top of a roof. These buildings were open to the public; merchants could sell their goods, artists could display their artwork, and religious gatherings could take place. Played 531 times. A crowning projection at a roof line, often with molding or other classical detail. An open space, usually open to the sky, enclosed by a building, often with an arcade or colonnade. The continuous platform of masonry on which a colonnade rests; the uppermost level of the stepped base (crepidoma) of a Greek temple. Statues of men and women dressed in ancient Grecian or Roman attire. Terms Commonly used in Architecture and Interior Design ACCESS PANEL: A small metal or wood door flush with a wall or ceiling surface which provides a closure over a valve or other operable device which is recessed into the wall or located above a ceiling. Dormer windows are sometimes crowned with pediments, and they often light attic sleeping rooms; “dormer” derives from “dormir,” French for “to sleep.”. The use of adobe bricks dates back to prehistoric times, and continues today. It is distinguished in circular, octagonal, hexagonal, three-conch and tetra-conch according to its form. The porch in font of the cella of a Greek or Roman temple formed by the projection of the side walls and a range of columns between the projections. Rafters that extend beyond the eaves of a roof. A mode of wall construction in French Colonial America in which tall posts are rammed into the ground, and the spaces between them are filled with mud plaster, also known as bousillage. This guide groups terms according to how we generally perceive a building, from the large to the small. Architecture constructed in England during the reigns of James I, Charles I, Charles II, and James II (1603-1688); Jacobean architecture followed Elizabethan architecture, and preceded the English Renaissance architecture of Inigo Jones. A curved or pointed structural element that is supported at its sides. The colonial kitchen display of the World’s Columbian Exposition of 1893 in Chicago was exceedingly popular amongst Colonial Revival enthusiasts. When sightseeing in France you might find some of these terms useful. A floor plan in which there are no (or few) hallways, and rooms open directly onto one another, often through wide doorways. Sliding doors are popular in such a plan, as are central living rooms. A turret is usually cylindrical, and is topped by a conical roof. This is a technique common to American folk architecture. Thus, the shape of a cross is clearly formed in the roof, hence the name of this church type. The BFE is the minimum elevation, per FEMA, at which new construction must be built. A pavilion may also stand alone, separate from a larger building, or may be connected to a main building by a terrace or path. An enclosed brick or stone oven built adjacent to a hearth in early Dutch Colonial houses. This course also provides you with a good Though you might not have your heart set on a certain type, knowing a few basic architectural designs will help you build a vocabulary to properly express what it is you really want. The central, longitudinal space of a basilica church, separated from the aisles or from side chaples, and extending from the main entrance to the transept or to the apse. Bricks formed out of mud or clay, and baked in a kiln or under the sun. A design that incorporates a pointed shape similar to an accent mark, common to Art Deco architecture. Start studying Basic Architecture Terms. A decorative triangular piece situated over a portico, door, window, fireplace, etc. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica and separated from it by columns or piers. The church has many variations. A roof covered with tiles that are usually hollow and half-cylindrical in shape, and made out of clay. A small dome, or hexagonal or octagonal tower, located at the top of a building. A window frame that is hinged on one vertical side, and which swings open to either the inside or the outside of the building. barrel vault, fan vault). Thus, the baptized to be from the yard or the exterior house, where the blessing, the exorcism and the profession of faith took place went into the interior, the photisterion. Stained glass windows are fitted with pieces of colored glass, which often depict a picture or scene. In the frieze of a Doric order, the rectangular area between triglyphs; often left plain but sometimes decorated with relief ornament. The structural units that divide adjacent windows. forces. This is because a lot of the words in English were borrowed from French before and during the Renaissance period. A massive vertical support often rectangular in plan and therefore differing from a column, sometimes having its own capital and base. Vernacular architecture responds to local methods of building construction, local climates, and local living needs and traditions. An open, roofed porch, usually enclosed on the outside by a railing or balustrade, and often wrapping around two or more (or all of the) sides of a building. Masonry made entirely out of plinths (with the typical red color) is encountered in Constantinople. On the capital, large conjoined Ionic volutes are combined with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. However, their disadvantage is that externally these churches look massive due to the big diameter of their dome. The period after the end of the Byzantine Empire, namely after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. In Part 1 of this two-part course we'll cover the fundamental concepts of architecture and the associated skills you'll need in Autodesk software to design your own buildings. It is sloped with concave curves at the top, and with convex curves at the bottom. The cylindrical body of a column between capital and base. A supporting substructure for a column or statue. French Baroque architecture melded traditional French architectural forms (such as steep roofs and irregular rooflines) with classical Italian elements (such as columns, porticos, and segmental pediments), and greatly influenced the non-religious architecture of 18th-century Europe. The first central plan building appeared as a hall in Roman baths. A semicircular recess or niche; a large apse. Shingling is a traditional weather-proofing method for building. A plant of the Mediterranean region whose serrated leaves were copied in stone to ornament Corinthian and Composite capitals; used also to decorate moldings and friezes. This type originates from the Roman mausoleum and during the early Christian period it was mainly used in martyria. See bay. Small, rectangular-shaped slats of wood that are nailed to an exterior surface, overlapping one another from top to bottom. The space inside the triangular piece is called the “tympanum,” and is often decorated. Small rectangular blocks that, when placed together in a row abutting a molding, suggest a row of teeth. A window that is fully arched at its top. Alternatively, here’s a more manageable list of 45 construction terms and concepts every architect should know. An architectural term applied to a colonnade, in which the intercolumniation is alternately wide and narrow. Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. It usually consists – apart from the yard or the external area of the baptism in contact with the southern aisle of the basilica - of two more rooms annexed to the aforementioned yard. Latin: “abacus” = table, tablet. The column and entablature developed on mainland Greece; the fluted columnar shaft is without a base; its capital is an abacus above a simple cushion-like molding (echinus). Create your own unique website with customizable templates. In Doric columns, they meet in a sharp edge; in Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite columns, they are separated by a narrow strip. Pueblos consist of many adjacent houses made of adobe brick, although these houses are often, themselves, called pueblos. Decorative patterns, very common in Byzantine church masonry. In ancient Greece, the Ionic order was the feminine order, and the most appropriate for temples constructed in homage to goddesses. A structure, often of central plan, erected on a site sacred to Christianity, symbolizing an act of martyrdom or marking the grave of a martyr who died for their faith. A manner of setting door knobs in place. An upper story of a building that projects out over the story beneath it, common in Colonial American architecture. A mixing of various architectural styles and ornamentation of the past and present, including ornamentation from Asia. Due to the impermanent nature of this construction, very few Poteau- en-terre buildings remain. Whether you’re a budding architect or just looking to build your own house and want to be up-to-date on the lingo, understanding all the different architectural drawing abbreviations can be important. One of the five Classical orders; favored in late Roman architecture. On the contrary, cross-in-square churches are more elegant. A colonial kitchen is usually large, with a wide, open hearth, and contains no modern conveniences (or else contains modern conveniences contrived to look pre-modern). An exterior wall, or face, of a building. Ventilation panels, often highly decorative. FULLY STUDDED: in reference to a type of construction; local term for vertical plank construction.Large vertical planks or studs that are rough sawn or planed are placed next to each other on a sill at the bottom and either extends to a plate at the top or continues to the roof. See bay window. A projection from a vertical surface that provides structural and/or visual support for overhanging elements such as cornices, balconies, and eaves. A cupola is sometimes topped with a lantern. A triangular space formed by the raking cornices (sloping sides) and horizontal cornice of a gabled temple; also used above a door or window. A large gilt statue of Athena once stood inside the temple. A spirit, character, custom, etc. If the apex or base is split, the pediment is described as broken. The space between adjacent columns in a colonnade, frequently determined by some multiple of the diameter of the column itself. New York City Landmarks Designates Park Slope Expansion District. A fixed window positioned to the side of a doorway or window. uplift: raising of a structure in response to structural. Jack arches are not actually arch-shaped, but are, instead, flat, and made of individual wedge-shaped bricks or stones held in place through compression. A smooth surface, usually rectangular (or sometimes circular) in shape and framed by a molding, and often featuring decorative, sculptural carving. Colloquially, a patio is a more informal space than a terrace. A column is flattened, rectangular shape, projecting slightly form the face of the wall. See patio. Furthermore, unlike cross-in-square churches, in the octagonal ones it is easier to see the Pantokrator in the dome, since the dome is visible from the entrance because the church is bigger. The Mansard roof was named after the French 17th-century architect Francois Mansart (1598-1666), who popularized the form. Vesuvius in 79 A.D. Two of the sides are trapezoidal in shape, while the remaining two sides are triangular, and thus meet the ridge at its end-points. Trusses- framework composed of struts, posts, and rafters, which may support a roof, bridge, or other similar structure. The celebrations from the mariological circle are those related to the Virgin Mary (The Nativity, The Presentation, The Annunciation, The Assumption). Rough-edged brick, often of variegated colors. Learn the basics of Revit for architectural design. The metal fittings of a building, such as locks, latches, hinges, handles, and knobs. Discovered by excavation in 1748, they provided much insight into the life, times, and architecture of the ancient Romans of the 1st century. A roof with two slopes – front and rear– joining at a single ridge line parallel to the entrance façade. An open, colonnaded, roofed space serving as a porch before the entrance to a building. A structural device, curved in shape, to span an opening by means of wedge-shaped bricks or stones that support each other by exerting mutual pressure and that are buttressed at the sides. A roof covered with straw, which is layered so as to shed rain quickly and effectively. The bell roof has origins in Normandy, toured extensively by Stanford White, who incorporated bell roofs into many of his Shingle Style houses and buildings. Four-sided stones – usually porous – are framed by thin, red bricks, the plinths. There he would get undressed, get anointed with the sacred oil and recite the Symbol of the Faith in front of the bishop. As a bake oven’s walls are made of solid, insulating materials, it can maintain an even temperature for many hours. tracery: curvy ornament in the upper part of a Gothic. A hood molding is also referred to as a “drip molding.”. Two adjacent doors that share the same door frame, and between which there is no separating vertical member. Arcade Passage or walkway covered over by a succession of arches or vaults supported by columns. The principal hall of an Aegean dwelling, oblong in shape and formed with sloping sides and a flat top, with a passage leading to an underground burial chamber. The principal exterior face of a building, usually the front. A vertical supporting element, similar to a small column. A decorative strip of wood running just below the eaves of a building. Good luck! Elizabethan architecture resulted from the English debut of French and Italian Renaissance architecture, whose classical order and symmetry transformed the asymmetrical and rambling medieval English castle. The advantage of this type is that the church interior is much broader than the interior of a cross-in-square church, where the interior dome abutments take up much space preventing the people from having a clear view of the sanctuary. Their name originates from the Arabic city, Kufa. A platform that projects from the wall of a building, and which is enclosed on its outer three sides by a balustrade, railing, or parapet. A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. At the top of a capital, a thick rectangular slab of stone that serves as the flat, broad surface on which the architrave rests. 1. A projecting window of an upper floor, supported from below by a bracket. Please be sure to include an email address in your billing information so that we may keep you informed of activities and events. A wooden siding treatment in which wide, vertically oriented boards are separated by narrower strips of wood called “battens,” which form the joints between the boards. A timber framework of Medieval European derivative whose timbers are in-filled with masonry or plaster. The first Christian centuries, between the 4th and the 6th or the 7th century A.D. A convex, cushion like molding between the shaft and the abacus in the Doric or Tuscan order; in an Ionic capital, found beneath the volutes, generally in decorated form. Fenestration: It’s a blanket terms for the design, construction, and presence of any openings in a building.Think windows, doors, vents, wall panels, skylights, curtain walls or louvers. Shallow, vertical grooves in the shaft of a column or pilaster. Basic Architectural Abbreviations To Know. Pillars can be round or square in section, and are most often made of brick, stone, cement, or other masonry, although substantial wooden timbers can be formed into pillars. 10+ Architectural Elements posted by John Spacey , June 07, 2016 updated on March 16, 2017 Architecture elements are components and treatments that are used in the design of buildings, houses, structures, interiors and landscapes. A classical style of architecture. structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. A molding about a fireplace, often highly decorated. A generally square block forming the bottom element of a column base; or the projecting lowest portion of a wall. Slate has been used to roof buildings in the United States since the colonial era. A gable roof whose rear slope is longer than its front slope. In architectural terms, what is an apron? A structural support, similar to a column, but larger and more massive, and often without ornamentation. Large, prominent masonry units outlining windows, doorways, segments, and corners of buildings. Basic Services: Basic Services are typical architectural services, without any Additional Services. A variation of the Ionic order, and the youngest (dating from the 4th century B.C.E.) structure with downwardly and upwardly curved surfaces. The entablature has a plain architrave, a frieze composed of metopes and triglyphs, and a cornice with projecting blocks (mutules). A wide, wrap-around covered porch lined with columns on one side, and common to French Colonial architecture of Louisiana. A sequence of alternating raised and lowered wall sections at the top of a high exterior wall or parapet. The three primary orders, used in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, are, chronologically: the Doric order, the Ionic order, and the Corinthian order. One of the most iconic buildings of the classical world, erected in Athens around 440 B.C.E. Architrave. This church type appears in Greece during the first half of the 10th century. of the three basic orders of classical Greek architecture (the others being the Doric and the Corinthian orders). The projecting edge of a roof that overhangs an exterior wall to protect it from the rain. forces. In GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete) or Architectural Fiberglass column capitals, the abacus may be cast as part of the capital or as a separate piece. Windows that are made up of many small, diamond-shaped panes of glass, common in Colonial and Colonial Revival buildings. A series of arches supported by columns or other vertical elements. Finally the baptism in the font would take place with the symbolism of diving and ascension. Tile roofs are common in many parts of the world, including the Mediterranean and the Southwestern United States. It is a variation of the cross-in-square church but in this case the dome is supported by eight pilasters peripherally. Brickwork made up of rows of bricks of alternating colors, typically red and white. Terms that distinguish certain construction materials and techniques are presented next. It would be very hard for you to learn much without first a thorough understanding of the essential architectural terms. We'll also provide deeper explanations into concepts and building tectonics at a residential scale. See Traditional Ethos. One of the five Classical Orders, the Ionic is characterized by a scroll-shaped (voluted) capital element, the presence of dentils in the cornice, and a frieze that might contain continuous relief ornament. The architecture, interior decoration and regal colors (“Pompeian red,” in particular) of these ancient cities influenced the Federal Style of the early 19th century. All-in Rate: In Construction, the term means the … Ten architectural terms for you. Pertaining to a building surrounded by a row of columns on all sides. Therefore, there was a built font in the center of the photisterion. Rafters are the inclined, sloping framing members of a roof, and to which the roof covering is affixed. An arched window immediately flanked by two smaller, non-arched windows, popularized by Andrea Palladio in northern Italy in the 16th century, and frequently deployed by American architects working in the American Georgian and American Palladian styles in the 17th and 18th centuries. If you have a word to contribute to our glossary, please email us. A tiered tower with multiple roof layers, constructed about a central axis pole. Even though in many areas of the empire, Byzantium has collapsed since 1204 (Frankish conquest), the term defines the years after the middle of the 15th century. Jacobean architecture was revived in the United States the early 20th century. Colored glass. Characteristic and elaborate church masonry style of the Helladic school. A small, square cupola that functions as a lookout tower, located at the top of a building. A framing motif consisting of an entablature and pediment supported by two columns. In classical architecture, series of urns and continuous or repeated swags of garlands are common decorative motifs. Double doors are often referred to as “French doors”, due to their preponderance in French architecture. Ionic: a type of classical architecture with scroll-like. Before you can begin to use ORACLE, you must have a basic understanding of the architecture of ORACLE to help you start thinking about an ORACLE database in the correct conceptual manner. The uppermost, projecting portion of an entablature; also the crowing horizontal molding of a building or wall. An “S”-curve is itself made up of two curves: a concave curve in its lower half, and a convex curve in its upper half. Church architectural type that makes its appearance in the second half of the 13th century primarily in mainland Greece. These churches consist of a crossed square where a cross and the three-parted Holy Bema are inscribed. Architectural Terms and Glossary: A lot of beginner architectural students have problems with architectural terms, and it's really essential that you understand them, or you will find yourself missing a lot. If you want to be an architect, you have to speak in a certain way because if you don't ... no one will believe you or take you seriously. Besides, one architectural origin of the basilica (since there are many disputes on its origin) are the Roman roads that had arcades supported by columns on their sides. A window with two sashes that move independently of each other. Indigenous to Asia (particularly to China, Japan, and Korea), and typically located there within Buddhist temple precincts, pagodas were built as decorative garden structures in the United States and Europe during the 18th and 19th centuries, when exoticism in architectural ornament was highly fashionable. Saltbox roofs are common to the architecture of Colonial New England. shared throughout a common people. Basic Definitions. https://uxplanet.org/information-architecture-basics-for-designers-b5d43df62e20 Variation of the single-naved, free cross plan with annex of conches in the three cross arms. Materials used can … Ionic: a type of classical architecture with scroll-like. Rooflines can be highly decorative, with balustrades, pediments, statuary, dormer windows, cross gables, etc. Balustrade: A railing composition composed of upper and lower rails, balusters and pedestals. A roof with a bell-shaped profile. Arch: A structure supported only at the sides, usually curved, made of wedge-shaped blocks, used to span an opening. Gingerbreading often took the form of scalloped or zig-zag-edged clapboards, which were often painted in contrasting colors. Jacobean architecture made use of many classical elements, such as columns, pilasters, and arcades, but it did so in a free and fanciful manner, rather than according to strict classical tradition. An exceptionally tall portion of a building. Balconet: A false balcony, or railing at the outer plane of a window. A section of a building distinguished by vertical elements such as columns or pillars. Arch. The second-oldest (mid-6th – 5th century B.C.E.) genre of art and literature and especially architecture in reaction against principles and practices of established modernism. Often, vines are trained around the wooden framework of a pergola, and the pergola may lead from one building to another. B.F.E. We distinguish two basilica types: the. Pairs of solid or slatted window coverings, traditionally hinged to the exterior of a building to either side of a window, used to block light or wind from the interior of a building. A horizontal band, sometimes painted or decorated with sculpture or moldings. A form of plaster made of mud, clay and moss used in poteaux-en-terre construction in French Colonial architecture, particularly in Louisiana. A Doric frieze often has continuous relief sculpture. In Greece we encounter them during the Byzantine and post Byzantine period. A side wing, tower, or window bay that protrudes from a building. They derive from the early Christian martyria and at the beginning they spread in N. Africa, Syria and Armenia. An arched ceiling or roof made of stone, brick, or concrete (cf. © 2020 - The Trust for Architectural Easements, Selling or Buying an Easement-Encumbered Property, Energy-efficient properties of historic buildings. The front facade of a building contains the building’s main entrance, the rear facade is the building’s rear exterior wall, and the side facades are a building’s side exterior walls. Belvederes are characteristic of Italianate houses. 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Sliding doors are often, vines are trained around the wooden framework of Medieval European derivative timbers! Red and white cross section ; also the term means the … tracery: ornament! Face of a building, from the rain handles, and building tectonics at a at. Over the story beneath it, common in Gothic and Gothic Revival architecture preferred, order Park slope District! Programs in advocacy, funding and outreach 20th century having been sculpted,... Period it was used as a roof line, often a church, often a.!