The Mughals were known for building beautiful quadrilateral gardens. Architecture During Mughal Period. Babur undertook the construction of a mosque in Panipat and Rohilkhand in 1526 A.D. His reign was too small for any new style and design but he was fond of formal gardens. Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page. Developed in Punjab and influenced by the Mughal architecture. He made the best use of Hindu and Persian style of architecture.The salient features of Akbar’s buildings are the use of red sandstone inlaid with white marble and painted designs on walls and ceiling. Two Frenchmen Bernier and Travenier an an Italian adventurer Manucci, the author of the Storio Dor Mogor, are specially noteworthy. Reasons for Muslim conquests – the wealth of the nation & the spread of Islam. He succeeded Babur but the reign was filled with constant struggle and war with Sher Shah Suri. The most important features of the Mughal monuments in India are the bulbous domes with constricted necks, the slender minarets with cupolas at the four corners, large halls, massive vaulted gateways and delicate ornamentation. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1981. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. His tomb at Delhi represents an outstanding landmark in the development and refinement of the Mughal style. It was built by Shah Jahan, when he decided to move the capital from Agra to Delhi. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. A large trade developed between India and Western Asia and Europe, which greatly contributed to the travelers. Large halls; Very large vaulted gateways; Delicate ornamentation; Bulbous domes; Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download. Mughal architecture under him reached its zenith. Dec 18, 2020 - Doc: Mughal Administration - The Mughal Empire, History, UPSC UPSC Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of UPSC. He didn’t take any active interest in the pursuit of art and architecture. INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE AND THE MIGHTY MUGHALS 2. Note: Charbagh style- the gardens inside the fort were built according to this style. The reign of Akbar is known for the initial works of Mughal School done by Mir Sayyed Ali and Abdus Samad Khan. The art and architecture of the period after 1526 reveal a happy blending of Muslim and Hindu art traditions. Constructed in the memory of his beloved wife Arzuman Bano Begum or Mumtaz Mahal. Its architects were R … Continue reading "Architecture at Fatehpur Sikri" Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. The architecture of the Akbar period is characterized by a strength made elegant and graceful by its rich decorative work, which reflects many traditional Hindu The Mughals were a staunch supporter of art and architecture. IAS Admit Card 2020 Out: Download UPSC CSE Mains Exam Admit Card, UPSC Study Material: Complete Notes for Prelims Exam in Hindi & English [Free], Monthly Current Affairs Test 2020: Attempt Quiz in Hindi & English, UPSC IAS Prelims Answer Key 2020: Download SET A, B, C & D Answer Key PDF. 3 only. Similar to literature and religion, the Mughal period was not an era of complete innovation and renaissance, but was an extension and culmination of processes that began in the last Ottoman-Afghan era. Safdar Jung’s tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh. One of the important distinguishing features of the Mughal buildings is their ornamentation as compared with the simple buildings of the previous Muslim rulers of India. The Taj Mahal is a great example of Mughals’ architecture, which brought together all the architectural forms developed by the Mughals in a very pleasing manner. 2. introduction of the arch and dome in the region’s architecture 3. establishment of Timurid dynasty Select the correct answer using the code given below: (UPSC CSAT 2015) 1 and 2 only. 4. Use of red sandstone was principle feature and he introduced the use of. Compare and contrast the architectural features of the Delhi Sultanate with that of Mughal architecture. Building material: During the Mughal period, buildings were constructed mostly of red sandstone and white marble. The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download also contains related Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) which will be beneficial for all Competitive Exams like WBCS (Preli & Mains), UPSC, SSC, Rail (Gr. 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The Mughals built magnificent forts, palaces, gates, public buildings, mosques, baolis (water tank or well), etc. They made use of red and grey sandstone latticed screens, painted ceilings and coloured tiles. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. During his reign, architecture reached its height and some of the principle works were: The finest example of architecture and mark of Love. He built Moti Masjid in Lahore and his own mausoleum at Shahdara (Lahore). Taj Mahal – It was built by Shah Jahan between 1632 and 1653, in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links: The Mughals constructed excellent Forts, Mosques, Mausoleums, Gardens and Cities. Humayun reestablished the Mughal empire in 1555. Red Sandstone was amply used in Mughal monuments. One of the architectural features of medieval India was also a coming together of styles, techniques, and decorations in public and private spaces for non-royal sections of the society. The new rulers effected an amalgam of the prevalent architectural forms and techniques with those brought from Central Asia and … Mughal rulers were men of acute aesthetic awareness who revitalised Indo-Islamic architecture. This style was influenced by Persian gardens and Timurid gardens. These two artists were originally employed by Humayun. Background- Muslim Rule in Subcontinent There were a number of different ruling dynasties who ruled over the subcontinent at successive intervals. Red Fort – UNESCO designated it as the World Heritage Site in 2007. The absence of pillars in the main hall and simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features. Though the Mughal art absorbed the Indian atmosphere, it neither represented the Indian emotions, nor the scenes from the daily life of the Indian. Jama Masjid – Built by Shah Jahan. One of the finest creations of the Mughal, Jodha Bai’s Palace in Fatehpur Sikri was a gift to the Rajput wife of the Mughal Emperor, Akbar. He shifted his capital city from Agra to Delhi. Some of the main features of mughal architecture are mentioned below. SALIENT FEATURES • Pools, • Fountains • Canals inside the gardens. The collected and constant efforts of these artists gave birth to a new school of painting, popularly known as the Mughal School of miniature Paintings. Important Features of Mughal Architecture: Blend of Indian, Persian, and Turkish architectural style. Post – Mughal Style of Architecture AVADH (OUDH) STYLE. Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. He undertook the reconstruction and extension of an old Mauryan route and renamed it as Sadak-e-Azam which was later called as. Some of the typical features include pools, fountains and canals inside the gardens. Your email address will not be published. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. It was built in 1601 A.D and acts as entrance to the Jama Masjid at Fatehpur Sikri. On similar lines, square, red, sandstone; the double storeyed structure of the mausoleum rises over a high square terrace; raised over a series of cells; etc. 1 and 3 only. The features include calligraphy, pietra dura works (beautiful inlay work with precious multicolour stones), Charbagh style gardens, use of water in premises for decoration and foresightening technique. Humayun’s Tomb – It was built in 1570 in memory of Emperor Humayun, it was declared as the world heritage site in 1993. The Mughal paintings are developed during the rule of Mughal Emperors in India (16th to 19th century). Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the IAS Exam, in the linked article. These include buildings for domestic usage, temples, mosques, Khanqahs and dargahs, commemorative gateways, pavilions in the buildings and gardens, bazaars, etc. Akbar period architecture, building style that developed in India under the patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reigned 1556–1605). Mughal gardens. He occupied the throne of Delhi in 1556, the golden period of Mughal art and architecture. Fort Building. The decline of Mughal architecture began during the rule of Aurangazeb and post his death. The city came to be known as Fatehpur Sikri, the “City of Victory”, after Akbar’s victorious Gujarat campaign in 1573. Each side pierced by arches and halls mounted by a large dome. Influenced by Mughals but unique in size and scope of construction. The tomb stands on a raised vast platform in the centre of a square garden. Bara Imambara built by the Nawab of Oudh in 1784. INTRODUCTION • Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. During this reign, architecture touched its zenith, many new buildings and tombs were built with great artistic vision and inspiration. Forgusson has opined that the Mugha style of architecture was foreign in origin. It includes the building of palaces and forts. The reign of Akbar (1556-1605) witnessed the development of the mughal architecture. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Garden is divided into 4 parts by Charbagh (causeways), in the centre of which run shallow water-channels. What was the New Indian Architecture of the Mughal period called? Different types of buildings, such as majestic gates (entrances), … 0: if directly started body saying “Notable features of Mughal architecture are as following… …” 1: if only introduction written; 2: if both introduction and conclusion written; Body: 1 to 4 marks: Not more than 2 marks if you’ve not mentioned any specific “WHERE ARE HINDU ELEMENTS” Logical structure-1 to 0 Sikandar Lodhi’s Tomb was the first garden-tomb built in India but it was the Humayun’s Tomb which gave new vision to art. In fact, use of running water even in their palaces and pleasure resorts was a special feature of the Mughals. 1,2 and 3. The style of architecture used by both Jahangir and Shahjahan is known as Indo Persian. The construction was completed in 1656. In this period there was extensive use of red sandstone as building material. The United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) recognized Taj Mahal as a World Heritage Site in 1983. Persian style was prominent during this period. Use of multiple Chhatris on the top of the construction. It was the residence of Mughal rulers. Your email address will not be published. Mughal architecture is a building style that developed in the Indian subcontinent from the 16th until the early 18th century, during the reign of the Mughal Empire. The character and structure of Mughal buildings displayed a uniform character and structure. Jaali work is lace-like and carvings on marble were finely done. Indian architecture entered upon a new phase with the advent of the Mughals. Here we are giving a gist of Mughal painting which is essential in UPSC IAS Examination. Last Mughal to undertake architectural constructions. Buland Darwaza was built by Mughal Emperor Akbar, to commemorate his victory over Gujarat. Mughals brought in Persian style into Indian Architecture. It is located in Agra. The architectural style is a remarkable mixture of Islamic, Indian, Turkish, and Persian styles. The building material obtained from the destruction of other buildings was used for new improvised buildings such as Quwwat- … The two most celebrated works accompli… The Mughals constructed excellent mausoleums, mosques, forts, gardens and cities. Key Features of Mughal Paintings: The Mughal pictures were small in size, and hence are known as ‘miniature paintings’. It was built during the reign of Aurangazeb. It was designed in 1564, eight years after his death, as a mark of devotion by his widow, Haji Begum. And after Babur, every emperor took great considerable interest in the architecture field. Cornices were built in the shape of an arch such that shadow took shape of a bow. The Mughals were a Muslim Empire descended from the Mongol Empire of Turkestan. His tomb was built at his birthplace Sasaram, Bihar, made up of red sandstone and situated inside a lake. Mughal emperors erected building of supreme beauty and grandeur. Mughal architecture begins with Akbar who displayed great passion for buildings with meticulous planning and constructing splendid edifices. Apart from this celebrated duo, more than a hundred painters were employed, most of whom were Hindus from Gujarat, Gwalior and Kashmir. B Humayun’s tomb built at Delhi (during Akbar’s reign), has a massive dome of marble; normally, it is considered as a precursor of the Taj Mahal. He focused more on paintings and other art forms. The material used by them to build early structures was derived from the destruction of temples in India. • Significant use of Rectilinear Layouts are made within the walled enclosures. Described as ‘frozen moment in history’ as the buildings represented a unique combination of Hindu and Persian style. Indo Islamic and Mughal Architecture 1. 5. Insights is synonymous with UPSC civil services exam preparation. It consisted of Diwan-i-aam and Diwan-i-khas. Ans . Mughal painting echoes an elite mixture of Indian, Persian and Islamic styles. Development of architecture under different Mughal rulers: The Mughal Empire (Notes+MCQ) PDF Download contains detailed study notes for this topic. This was the new capital city made by Akbar and was a new era of Indo-Islamic architecture. Some of the prominent construction under his reign are: One of the first constructions during Akbar’s reign. The Mughal buildings show a uniform pattern both in structure and character. The early Muslim invaders of India had come into the country to merely loot and plunder and did not concern themselves with architecture. Under the patronage of Mughal emperors, the architecture of forts and tombs saw a striking resemblance to Islamic architecture. For the first time, red sandstone was used along with white (the white is used cleverly to emphasize, surround & underline doors and windows, strengthening the design). His period is the transition from Lodhi style to the Mughal style of architecture. • This style was influenced by Persian Gardens and Timurid gardens. Mughal Architecture. Shalimar Gardens – It is a 40 acre garden built by Shah Jahan in 1642. Mughal architecture […] The Mughal architecture was an amalgamation of Persian, Turkic, Timurid Iranian, Central Asian, and Indian Hindu style of architecture. It can be translated as Door to Victory. Mughal architecture first developed and flourished during the reign of Akbar. They developed Indo-Islamic architecture in the Indian subcontinent. They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. The art and culture of India contain Paintings, music, architecture etc. Further facilitated by the inter-rivalry and lack of unity … What Great Buildings did the Mughals Create? They developed or improve the style of earlier dynasties like Lodhi’s and it was a combination of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian Architecture. Made of red stone on the bank of river Yamuna. Required fields are marked *, Slender Minarets with cupolas at the 4 corners, Aspirants can find information on the structure and other important details related to the. It is the largest palace in the abandoned yet magnificent city of Fatehpur Sikri. Mughal dynasty was established after the battle of Panipat in 1526. Mughal architecture reached its peak during the rule of Shah Jahan. Mughal architecture started declining during his period. The new Indian Architecture of the Mughal period is called Mughal Architecture. Important features of this style are Curved lines, Bulbous dome, foliated arches vigorous use of marble instead of red sand stone and use of pietre dura for decorative purposes. Red Fort is an irregular octagon with its walls, gates, and a few other structures constructed in red sandstone, and marble used for the palaces. Marvel at the grand design and layout. 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The structure is an impressive example of Mughal architecture. Fluted domes covered with brass and copper guilds and arches were decorated. Thirteenth century had already introduced of the arcuate technique where spaces were covered with domes and entrances were made with the help of arches. Badshahi Mosque – At the time of completion in 1673, it was the largest mosque in the world. RELEVANCE – GS PRE & GS MAINS PAPER I – CULTURE SECTION Sikri town ( in Agra ) was founded as the capital of Mughal Empire in 1571 by Emperor Akbar. Consequently, they did not bring with them, architects or masons. Some of the most famous buildings created during Mughal era are given below. Architecture flourished during the reign of Humayun’s son Akbar. This document is highly rated by UPSC students and has been viewed 2285 times. Insights has redefined the way preparation is done in UPSC civil service exam D, ASM, TTE), Food Sub Inspector, WB Police, … 3. 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